|

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Milyukov V.К., Drobishev V.N., Mironov А.P., Steblov G.M., Hubaev H.М. Оssetian geodetic satellite network: creation and first results of geodinamic monitoring.

The Ossetian part of the Greater Caucasus, being one of the most tectonically active regions of the Caucasus, until recently wasn't covered by the high-precision geodetic measurements based on satellite methods. Since 2010 the network of geodetic points for carrying out the periodically - repeated measurements by the mobile GPS equipment was developed in this region by the аuthors of this work, and also three permanent GPS stations were established. The technique of data processing and results of GPS measurements in 2010-2013 are given in this work. Estimates of velocities of horizontal movements are given in three reference systems: in the terrestrial coordinate system ITRF2008, relative to fixed Eurasia and in the local reference system determined by the stationary station ARDN. The obtained results, besides the general submeridional movement of the region connected with convergence of the Eurasian and Arabian plates, revealed a number of the tectonic features caused, apparently, by continuing local processes of formation of the tectonic structure of this region.

Keywords: satellite geodesy, GPS measurements, modern earth crust motion, regional tectonic processes.
References
1. Barkovskaya K.S., Bezborodov R.S., Brod I.O., Bun'kov M.S., Grinfel'd M.I., Zhivago N.V., Ibragimov D.M., Kudryavtsev M.P., Leonov G.P., Moskvin M.M., Nazarov R.I., Nesmeyanov D.V., Nikolenko V.A. Geologicheskoe stroenie vostochnoy chasti severnogo sklona Kavkaza. Tr. Kompleksn. yuzhnoy geol. ekspeditsii. Vyp. 2. – L.: Gostoptekhizdat. 1960. 320 s.
2. Milyukov V.K., Drobyshev V.N., Torchinov Kh-M.Z., Khubaev Kh.M. Izuchenie geodinamiki Gornoy Osetii v 2009–2011 gg. // Vestnik VNTs RAN i RSO-A, T. 11, № 4, 2011 g. S. 49–53.
3. Prilepin M.T., Balasanyan S., Baranova S.M., Guseva T.V., Mishin A.V., Nadariya M., Rogozhin E.A., Rozenberg N.K., Skovorodkin Yu.P., Khamburger M., King R., Reylinger R. Izuchenie kinematiki Kavkazskogo regiona s ispol'zovaniem GSP-tekhnologii. // Fizika Zemli. 1997. № 6. S. 68–75.
4. Shevchenko V.I. Proiskhozhdenie struktur gorizontal'nogo szhatiya v skladchatom sooruzhenii. – M.: Nauka. 1984. 160 s.
5. Shevchenko V.I. Stroenie Glavnogo khrebta Tsentral'nogo Kavkaza mezhdu rekami Ardon i Terek // Byul. MOIP, Otd. geol.. 2002. Vyp. 2. S. 19–29.
6. Shevchenko V.I., Guseva T.V., Lukk A.A., Mishin A.V., Prilepin M.T., Reylindzher R.E., Khamburger M.U., Shempelev A.G., Yunga S.L. Sovremennaya geodinamika Kavkaza (po rezul'tatam GPS izmereniy i seysmologicheskim dannym) // Fizika Zemli. 1999. № 9. S. 3–18.
7. Becker M., Zerbinib S., Bakerc T., Bürkid B., Galanise J., Garatef J., Georgievg I., Kahled H.-G., Kotzevg V., Lobazovh V., Marsoni I., Negusinib M., Richtera B., Veise G., Yuzefovich P. Assessment of height variations by GPS at Mediterranean and Black Sea coast tide gauges from the SELF projects // Global and Planetary Change. 2002. Volume 34. Issues 1-2. P. 5-35. DOI: 10.1016/S0921-8181(02)00103-0
8. Dong D.-N., Herring T. A., and King R. W. Estimating regional deformation from a combination of space and terrestrial geodetic data // J. Geod. 1998. 72. P. 200–214.
9. Feigl K.L, Agnew D.C., Bock Y., Dong D.-N., Donnellan A., Hager B. H., Herring T.A., Jackson D.D., King R.W., Larsen S. K., Larson K.M., Murray M.H., and Shen Z.-K. Measurement of the velocity field in central and southern California // J. Geophys. Res. 1993. 98. P.21667–21712.
10. Heflin M. et al., 2004. http:sideshow.jpl.nasa.gov/mbh/series.html
11. Herring T.A., King R.W., McClusky S.C. Introduction to GAMIT/GLOBK. Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2010. 12
12. Herring, T.A. GLOBK: Global Kalman filter VLBI and GPS analysis program. Version 10.1. Internal Memorandum. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 2003.
13. King, R. W. and Y. Bock. Documentation for the GAMIT analysis software, release 9.7. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 1998.
14. McClusky S., Balassanian S., Barka A., Demir C., Ergintav S., Georgiev I., Gurkan O., Hamburger M., Hurst K., Kahle H., Kastens K., Kekelidze G., King R., Kotzev V., Lenk O., Mahmoud S., Mishin A., Nadariya M., Ouzounis A., Paradissis D., Peter Y., Prilepin M., Reilinger R., Sanli I., Seeger H., Tealeb A.,Toksüz M.N., Veis G. Global Positioning System constraints on plate kinematics and dynamics in the eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus // Journal of Geophysical Research. 2000. V. 105. Issue B3. P. 5695–5719.
15. Milyukov Vadim, Alexander Kopaev, Vladimir Zharov, Alexey Mironov, Andrey Myasnikov, Mark Kaufman, Dmitry Duev. Monitoring crustal deformations in the Northern Caucasus using a high precision long base laser strainmeter and the GPS/GLONASS network // Journal of Geodynamics. 2010. V. 49. No. 3-4. P. 216-223.
16. Reilinger R., McClusky S., Souter B., Hamburger M., Prilepin M., Mishin A., Guseva T., Balassanian S. Preliminary estimates of plate convergence in the Caucasus collision zone from global positioning system measurements // Geophysical Research Letters. 1997.V. 24 No 14. P. 1815–1818.
17. Reilinger R., McClusky S., Vernant P., Lawrence S., Ergintav S., Cakmak R., Ozener H., Kadirov F., Guliev I., Stepanyan R., Nadariya M., Hahubia G., Mahmoud S., Sakr K., ArRajehi A., Paradissis D., Al-Aydrus A., Prilepin M., Guseva T., Evren E., Dmitrotsa A., Filikov S.V., Gomez F., Al-Ghazzi R., and Gebran Karam. GPS constraints on continental deformation in the Africa-Arabia-Eurasia continental collision zone and implications for the dynamics of plate interactions // Journal of Geophysical Research. 2006.V. 111. No. B5. P. B05411.

Gazeev V.M., Gurbanov A.G., Lexin A. B., Goldsman Yu. V., Oleinikova T.I. A new isotope-geochemical and mineralogenical data on Early-Jurassic Marinsky volcano-plutonic complex (river Podkumok head, Karachaevsky volcanic area, North Caucasus).

The paper is devoted to solving of the important for the Great Caucasus geology problem – «The sources of melts, paleogeodynamic conditions, existing during Early-Alpine volcanic activity at the southern margin of the Eastern European Platform and its role in shaping of the continental crust» and «Minerageny of the Early-Alpine magmatic complexes». In the context of these problems the investigations was aimed on solving of the following task: petrochemical, mineralogical, geochemical, isotope and mineragenic characteristics of the rocks of the Early-Alpine magmatic complexes of the Great Caucasus. The representative samples from rocks of Marinsky complex (MC) was collected and investigated by modern analytical methods (XFA, ICP MS, isotope analyses). Petrology-geochemical and isotope (87Sr/86Sr – in andesite-basalt=0.7054–0.7059; in andesite= 0.7045 and 143Nd/ 144Nd – 0.51248 и 0.51252, εNd(Т)=1.85–2.72, respectively) peculiarities of the Low-Jurassic volcanites of MC (andesite-basalt, andesite, andesi-dacite and dacite)/ situated at the southern part of Scythian Platform have been revealed. On the diagnosis, performance and composition diagram the dots of volcanic rocks of MC are situated in fields of rocks which have been origin in active continental margin or in continental arc island. Double-faced characteristics was depends upon by lesser (thickness 40–45 km) of continental lithosphere of Scythian Platform, than in classic an active continental margin of Andian type (thickness 60-70 km) and lager, than in continental arc island (thickness 15–25km). The role of the Early-Alpine volcanic belt, including its part - Marinsky complex, in forming the continental crust of the Great Caucasus, judging from, volumes of effusive and intrusive material, is rather significantly.

Keywords: Marinsky volcano-plutonic complex; petrochemical, geochemical, isotope and mineragenic data; geodynamic paleoconditions; minerageny of the Early-Alpine magmatizm.
References
1. Bogush I.A., Sendetskiy I.I. Osobennosti metallogenii zolota v pozdnem paleozoe i srednem mezozoe Yuzhnogo regiona Rossii. // Problemy geologii i geoekologii Yuzhno-rossiyskogo regiona. – Novocherkassk, 2001. S. 98–102.
2. Bol'shoy Kavkaz v al'piyskuyu epokhu (gl. red. Leonov) – M.: GEOS, 2007. 340 s.
3. Borsuk A.M. Mezozoyskie i kaynozoyskie magmaticheskie formatsii Bol'shogo Kavkaza. – M.: Nauka, 1979. 299 s.
4. Vardanyants L.A. Nizhneyurskiy vulkanizm Klukhoro-Marinskogo rayona (Tsentral'nyy Kavkaz) // Materialy VSEGEI, novaya seriya, 1956. Vyp. 8. Geologiya i poleznye iskopaemye. Chast' 1. S. 67–85.
5. Gazeev V.M., Korsakov S.G., Shaevskiy V.I., Gurbanov A.G., Borisovskiy S.E. Tipomorfizm rossypnykh zolotin Severnogo Kavkaza // Vest. Vladikavkazskogo nauchnogo Tsentra RAN i pravitel'stva RSO-A. 2012. Tom 12. № 1 C. 32–40.
6. Gurbanov A.G., Gazeev V.M., Leksin A.B., Khess Yu.S. Nizhneyurskiy ostrovoduzhnyy bazal't-andezit-datsitovyy magmatizm Tsentral'nogo Kavkaza (Karachaevskaya vulkanicheskaya oblast'): petrologo-geokhimicheskie i izotopnye osobennosti, genezis // Vestnik Vladikavkazskogo nauchnogo tsentra RAN i Pravitel'stva respubliki Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya. 2011. T.11. № 2. S. 15–32.
7. Zonenshayn L.P., Kuz'min M.I., Natanov L.M. Tektonika litosfernykh plit territorii SSSR. – M.: Nedra, 1990. Kniga 1 – 328 s. Kniga 2 – 334 s.
8. Kazarinov S.L., Novikov V.N., Yablokova S.V. Zolotonosnost' mestorozhdeniy PGS Karachaevo-Cherkesskoy Respubliki (Severnyy Kavkaz) // Rudy i metally. – M.: TsNIGRI, 1998. S. 48–57.
9. Koronovskiy N.V., Demina L.I. Magmatizm kak indikator geodinamicheskikh obstanovok. – M.: Izd. KDU, 2011. 209 s.
10. Kondakov L.A. Mezozoyskiy magmatizm yugo-vostochnoy chasti Labino-Malkinskoy zony (Severnyy Kavkaz). – M.: Nauka, 1974. 142 s.
11. Lebedev A.P. Yurskaya vulkanogennaya formatsiya Tsentral'nogo Kavkaza. – M.: Izd-vo ANSSSR. 1950. 182 s.
12.. Lordkipanidze M.B. Al'piyskiy vulkanizm i geodinamika tsentral'nogo segmenta Sredizemnomorskogo skladchatogo poyasa. – Tbilisi: Metsniereba. 1980. 162 s.
13. Mengl K., Vedepol' K.G., Gurbanov A.G., Borsuk A.M. Sredneyurskiy vulkanizm zony yuzhnogo sklona Bol'shogo Kavkaza: kharakteristika protsessov magmatizma i gidrotermal'nykh izmeneniy // Magmatizm riftov i skladchatykh poyasov. – M.: Nedra, 1993. S. 80–107.
14. Miroshnikov A.M. Poiskovye raboty na zoloto po marinskoy ploshchadi // SK filial TFGI po YuFO, Essentuki, 2011.
15. Muratov M.V. Yurskie porfiritovye intruzii v verkhov'yakh r. Khasauta i Eshkakona (Severnyy Kavkaz). Izv. AN SSSR. Seriya geol. 1954. № 3. S. 85–101.
16. Nikol'skiy Yu.I., Milay T.A., Kogan L.Z. Geologo-geofizicheskie issledovaniya tektoniki magmatizma i metallogenii Kavkaza // VIRG. – Leningrad: Nedra, 1975. 207 s.
17. Panov D.I. K voprosu o geologicheskoy istorii Kryma v triasovoe i yurskoe vremya // Vestn. MGU. Ser. Geol. 1997. № 3. S. 43–49.
18. Petrograficheskiy kodeks Rossii. Magmaticheskie, metamorficheskie, metasomaticheskie, impaktnye obrazovaniya. – Sankt-Peterburg: VSEGEI, 2009 g.198 s.
19. Pis'mennyy A.N., Pichuzhkov A.N., Zarubina M.A., i dr. Ob''yasnitel'naya zapiska k gosudarstvennoy geologicheskoy karte RF. Izd. 2. Seriya Kavkazskaya. Listy K-38-I, VII (Kislovodsk). 2004.
21. Khess Yu.S., Aretts I., Emmerman R., Lippol't Kh.I., Borsuk A.M., Gurbanov A.G. Petrogenezis yurskikh izvestkovo-shchelochnykh seriy porod severnoy chasti (Bechasynskaya zona) Bol'shogo Kavkaza // Magmatizm riftov i skladchatykh poyasov. – M.: Nedra, 1993. S. 58–79.
22. Hess J.C., Aretz J., Gurbanov A.G. et al. Subduction-related Jurassic andesites in the Great Caucasus // Geol. Rundsch. 1995. vol. 84. Pp. 319-333.
23. Kay R.W. Volcanic arc magmas: implications of a melting-mixing model for element recycling in the crust-upper mantle system. J. Geol. 1980. V. 88. P. 497-522.
24. Nikishin A.M., Ziegler P.A., Panov D.I., et al. Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution Scythian Platform – Black Sea – Caucasus domain // P.A/ Ziegler, W. Cavazza and A.H.F. Robinson, S. Grasquin-Soleau (eds.). Pri-Tethys Memoir 6. Pri-Tethys Rift/Wrench Basins and Passive Margins. Memoires du Museum natural d’Histoire naturelle/ Paris. 2001. Vol. `186. P. 296–346.
25. Nikishin A.M., Gloetingh S, Bolotov S. N., Baraboshkin E.Yu., Kopaevish L. F., et al. Scythian Platform chronostratigraphy and polyphase stages of tectonic history // S. Crasquin Solean, E. Barrier (eds.). Peri-Tethys Memoir 3; stratigraphy and evolution of Peri-Tethyan platform. Memories du Museum national d’Histore naturelle, Paris. 1998a Vol. 177. P. 151–162.
26. Nikishin A.M., Gloetingh S., Brunet M.-F., Bolotov S. N’; Ershov A.V., et al. Scythian Platform, , Caucasus and Black Sea region:Mezozoic-Cenozoic tectonic history and dynamics // S. Crasquin Solean, E.

Milyukov V.К., Drobishev V.N., Mironov А.P., Ovsyuchenko A.N., Hubaev H.М. Implementation of the high-precision geodetic network for studying of modern movements of the Vladikavkaz fault zone with use of GPS technology.

The Vladikavkaz Fault Zone is a regional boundary between the Alpine folded-block system of the Great Caucasus and the Pre-Caucasus foredeep (Ossetian depression). Studying of modern crust movements in contact zones and the fault structures is essential both for the correct understanding of modern dynamics of earth's plates and blocks, and deep forces and internal processes, managing their evolution. In 2014 within realisation of the plan of research works of VNC of RAS- Government RSO-Alania and the project of the RFBR on studying of modern geodynamics and a deep structure of the TheVladikavkaz Fault Zone the geodetic network for monitoring of the state of this structure with use of satellite geodesy technology has been created. Results are presented in this paper.

Keywords: satellite geodesy, GPS measurements, modern earth crust motion, regional tectonic processes.
References
1. Ovsyuchenko A.N., Gorbatikov A.V., Stepanova M.Yu., Larin N.V., Rogozhin E.A. Seysmotektonika i glubinnoe stroenie zony Vladikavkazskogo aktivnogo razloma. // GEOFIZIChESKIE ISSLEDOVANIYa. Tom 12, 2011, № 1, s. 47–59.
2. Ol'khovskiy G.P., Tibilov S.M., Troshchak S.A., Kirichko Yu.A., Enna N.L., Pis'mennyy A.N., Fisenko N.S., Ikaeva N.N., Mulina I.G. Sostavlenie spetsializirovannoy geologicheskoy osnovy masshtaba 1:50 000 dlya prognozno-metallogenicheskoy karty Gornoy Osetii. – Vladikavkaz: GGP «Sevosgeologorazvedka», 1998.
3. Herring T.A., King R.W., McClusky S.C. Introduction to GAMIT/GLOBK. Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2010.
4. Milyukov V., Kopaev A., Zharov V., Mironov A., Myasnikov A., Kaufman M., Duev D. Monitoring crustal deformations in the Northern Caucasus using a high precision long base laser strainmeter and the GPS/GLONASS network // Journal of Geodynamics, 2010 (49), pp. 216–223. DOI:10.1016/j.jog.2009.10.003

Drobyshev C.N., Torchinov H-M.Z., Tutubalina, O.C., Hubaev H.M. Main topographical data and kinematics of the Devdorakskiy collapse on may 17, 2014

In the present work, the material characterizing the main topographical and dynamic parameters of ice-rock collapse in the valley river Terek and Georgian Military road from the Devdorak glacier May 17, 2014. There is not unsubstantiated assumption about anticipatory activation of magmatic factor that played a role root cause that triggered a powerful exogenous movement catastrophic level in the area of Kazbegi volcanic centre.

SCIENCE FOR INDUSTRY

L.A. Voropanova, F.A. Gagievа. Sorption of anions of rhenium (VII), molybdenum (VI) and tungsten (VI) from water solutions on the anionits of the brands AMP and AM-2b.

Researches of ion-exchange extraction of ions of rhenium, molybdenum and tungsten at their joint presence at solution on a gel anionit of the AMP brand and a macroporous anionit of the AM-2b brand are conducted. Optimum conditions of sorption are revealed, comparison of the received results on sorbents of AMP and AM-2b is carried out. The assessment of possibility of application of the specified sorbents for joint and selective extraction of rhenium, molybdenum and tungsten from water solutions is given.

Keywords: tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, anionit, secondary waste, selectivity, extraction, sorption, ionic exchange, division.
References
1. Kalashnikov A.N., Sakhno A.I. Izvlechenie reniya ot otkhodov razlichnykh splavov. – M., 1983. 24 s. Dep v TsNIITsvetmet, № 1009-TsMD83.
2. Blokhin A.A., Kopyrin A.A., Mikhaylenko M.A., Nikitin N.V. // Materialy II Mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii «Metallurgiya tsvetnykh i redkikh metallov». 9–12 sentyabrya 2003 g. – Krasnoyarsk, 2003 g. T. 1. S. 95–96.
3. Rodzaevskiy V.V. Reniy. Syr'yevye resursy i tekhnologiya proizvodstva. –M.: Tsvetmetinformatsiya,1970.
4. Voropanova L.A, Gagieva F.A. Fiziko-khimicheskoe issledovanie sorbtsii anionov reniya (VII), molibdena (VI) i vol'frama (VI) iz vodnykh rastvorov smesi ikh soley na aktivirovannom kostnom ugle i na anionitakh marok AMP i AM-2b / Deponirovano v VINITI, 10.04.2012, № 158-V2012, 52 s.
5. Patent 2405845 RF ot 10.12.10, S22V 61/00 S 22V 3/24, BI № 34. Voropanova L.A., Gagieva F.A. Sposob sorbtsii reniya (VII) iz vodnogo rastvora na anionitakh marok AM-2b i AMP.
6. Spirin E.K., Bubnov V.K., Laskorin B.N. i dr. Obshchie svoystva ionoobmennykh materialov. Iz-vo «Zhanna Dark», g. Akmola. 1993 g.

POLITOLOGY

Dzugaev K.G. South Ossetia and the precedent of Crimea.

The article considers the problem of the reunion of divided Ossetian people, discusses the need for the entry the Republic of South Ossetia into the Russian Federation in the light of the precedent of Crimea and analyses the positions of political parties and religious confessions.

Keywords: Ossetia, Russia, reunion, Crimea, Islam.

HUMAN, CIVILIZATION, AND CULTURE

Chibirov L.A. The politician. The statesman. Scientist

The article is devoted to AkhsarbekGalasov, the first President of the Republic North Ossetia-Alania. Alongside with being an outstanding state and political figure professor Galasov is an author of many linguistic researches which made significant contribution to the academic science in the Republic.

Keywords: South Ossetia, perestroika, the 90-s, conflict, interethnic relations, peaceful settlement, Caucasus, scientificresearch.
References
1. Gazeta «Severnaya Osetiya», 2009, ot 15 oktyabrya
2. Plakhtiy S. Pervyy prezident // «Osetiya. Svobodnyy vzglyad», ot 15 okt. 2009 g.
3. Galazov A. Perezhitoe. – M., 2002.
4. Gazeta «Ekho» (Vladikavkaz), 1996, № 8 (avgust).
5. Chibirov L.A. O vremeni, o lyudyakh, o sebe. Zapiski pervogo prezidenta. – Vl., 2004 g.
6. Gazeta «Sovetskaya Osetiya», 1988, № 32, ot 16 fevralya.

BOOK REVIEWS

Dzidzoev V. D., Beteeva M.M. The analysis of the Constitution and Constitutional problems of the Russian Federation (book review: Tsaliev A.M. Sketches on the Constitution and constitutional law issues)

Osmanov A.I., Shavlokhova E.S., Matveev V.A. Review on book «The problems and prospects of perfecting of national policies and Russian federalism» by V.D. Dzidzoev and F.В. Msoeva

Chibirov L.A., Chibirov А.L. Review on monography «The origin of the Nart Epos» of M. Djurtubayev

Khugaev I.S. Actual problems of modern education in terms of bilingualism: proceedings of the II all-Russian conference dedicated to the 100-th anniversary of Professor K. E. Gagkaeva

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS

Vladikavkaz regional Playground of the IV all-Russian science Festival

International conference «Geodynamics, vulcanism, seismicity and exogenous geological processes of natural and anthropogenic nature in the Caucasus

ANNIVERSARIES, CONGRATULATIONS

Vladislav Borisovich Zaalishvili – 65 years